Today I propose to consider such a topic as the cultivation of petunias. I know first-hand that many people cannot grow it at home for seedlings. And so put, and commercials, but it does not germinate and that’s it. This is especially true for varietal plants, which are not so cheaply sold, and there are a maximum of 10 pieces in their packaging.
And buy ready-made seedlings for planting it in the garden, oh, how not cheap. One bush can cost 25 and 35 rubles, and even more expensive, depending on the variety. I want to buy it in different types, varieties and colors; put in a flowerbed, in flowerpots, and in pots … No money is enough to get everything. Therefore, it is better to learn how to plant it with seeds yourself.
The popularity of this plant is simply enormous. To whom you will not come to the country in the summer, everyone can boast of their plants. And their appearance is simply amazing. From the simplest ones — pink and white modest flowers to huge terry flowers rich in color plan.
And how beautiful does it look on the balcony, or the windowsill in a city apartment ?! You look, and you receive huge esthetic pleasure.
Recently, in all cities a lot of attention paid to the improvement. Many trees, shrubs, and of course flowers are planted. And beauties — petunias can be found on every flowerbed, in every flowerpot. By mid-summer, they grow so big and bloom that they look just great. They are fragrant with their delicate, subtle aroma and invariably attract the eye. And thus they will bloom and delight us until the frost.
So today we will talk about planting this popular plant. After all, in fact, planting seeds is not at all difficult. There are only a few small secrets, which will be discussed below.
This is an annual plant, whose birthplace is South America. Where it was discovered by the Swedish botanist Lamarck. The name comes from the Brazilian word «petun», which means «tobacco». It belongs to the family Solanaceae. In Europe, the plant came at the beginning of the XIX century, where it was successfully cultivated. A hundred years ago, the first hybrids of the variety began to appear.
The plant has the appearance of a creeping or erect shrub, height from 20 to 70 cm.
His root system is pivotal and weakly branching. That is, the roots in the ground do not go deep.
The most remarkable of the plants are of course beautiful flowers. They have a single petunia, funnel-shaped, expanding upward in the form of a bell. Located in the axils of the leaves. They can be both very simple and terry with a wavy or fringed edge.
Flowers, as a rule, have delicate gentle aroma.
Their color is full of variety. Among them there are monochromatic and multicolored, including with different edging. Describing the beauty of this plant and its flowers is very difficult. Of course it is better to see it with my own eyes. It is no coincidence that this type of garden flowers attracts the attention of all gardeners and flower growers.
The fruit of the plant has the form of a box, which can contain up to 300 seeds of very small size.
All petunias are divided into many-flowered and large-flowered.
The first of them bloom earlier and have on one bush a lot of flowers with a diameter of about 5 cm. As a rule, there are a lot of them, and flowering continues until late autumn. Plants are not afraid of light frosts, and resistant to rain. They are not whimsical and not capricious.
The latter have fewer flowers, but it is much larger. These plants are more whimsical, they do not like the rains, which damage the gentle petal. Therefore, they are usually grown on terraces and balconies.
Also, all petunias differ in bush, ampelous and cascade.
- among the representatives of the bush can be found as small compact varieties and long shrubs. The size of the first flowers at the same time reaches 4 — 5 cm, and in the second they can be up to 15 cm in diameter, which is simply amazing.
They are shaped like a bush, and usually land on a flower bed.
The most popular varieties are «Milliflor», with a size of flowers up to 4 cm; «Multiflora» — with flowers up to 7 cm; and Grandiflora — with flowers up to 15 cm.
- Ampel varieties also have the name «creeping». They grow not up, but down. As a rule, their shoots are very long. And therefore, they are ideal for planting in hanging pots or containers. Although, they can often be found in flowerbeds. They love the sun very much and bloom beautifully under its rays.
There are a lot of varieties in this category, but the “Easy Wave” variety is the most popular. It is very easy to grow and maintain. The scourge can reach up to 1 meter in length, and the flowers themselves have a variety of colors and bloom well until the frosts themselves.
Petunia «Easy Wave» has a lot of hybrid varieties.
By the same popular and popular varieties of the people can be attributed, and such as Surfinia. This plant is perfectly adapted to adverse weather conditions. It develops very quickly and grows well. His whips grow to 70 cm in length. Flowers have a rich color range. The plant also loves sunny places, but in extreme cases it can grow in partial shade.
- Cascade petunias also have fairly long shoots that grow not only downwards, but also to the sides and upwards. Therefore, they are very fond of using in landscape design.
One of the favorite varieties for cultivation is the Picotee variety. Bushes grow up to 25 cm in length and have many large bright flowers with a white edging on the petals. She is not afraid of rain and has a long flowering time.
The next variety to pay attention to is Polaris (Polaris). The flowers are also amazingly beautiful, and have contrasting white stripes on the petals. This annual is not afraid of bad weather, and is equally resistant to frost, rain and wind. It grows quickly enough, and reaches a length of 30 cm. It blooms long and rich.
And so, the bush varieties are better suited for flowerbeds, and the ampelous and cascade varieties are better for vases and flowerpots. However, for planting a balcony or loggia, preference is given to cascade varieties.
Sometimes not everyone can figure out what is the difference between ampellate varieties and cascade varieties. Let’s look at this in more detail.
Cascade varieties differ from ampelous ones primarily because their shoots are longer and more curly. At the same time, plants grow not only downwards, as ampelous, but also upwards and sideways. That is, they need more space and space in pots for growth and development.
It is better to grow such plants in hanging pots, where growth will be ensured in all directions.
Pay attention to the variety «Jokonda» (Gioconda). An adult plant has shoots up to 1 meter in length, while its height reaches 20 cm, which is far from small. At the same time, the flowers have a rich palette of colors — purple, pink, scarlet, red, orange …
Another variety is also very good, and it is often grown in flower beds. The stalks of the plant are very long, creeping, and also they grow in all directions and upwards. What allows you to fill the space on the bed to 2 square meters. meters And if such a plant is regularly fed, the number of flowers and the time of their flowering will amaze you. Such a variety is called «Taifun» (Typhoon). Apparently the name for it was chosen not by chance.
And so, we got a little acquainted with the review, varieties and varieties of petunia. All this will help you decide on the choice of variety and the correct planting and cultivation in the future.
Not everyone grows petunia on their own due to the fact that they do not want to bother with seedlings. And some, because attempts to do this, turned out to be unsuccessful all the time. Therefore, they prefer to buy ready-made seedlings in the store. But as mentioned above, when the planting season begins, the price of this plant is very, very high.
Therefore, the favorite plant is bought, but in very small quantities. Having dropped him into a pot, or in two, they always think about having even more of such pot!
But the landing process is not complicated at all. You could even say that easy. Therefore, it is better to grow planting material yourself. Yes, and those varieties that you want. And not those that grew on a massive scale.
The only thing that should always be considered when planting these garden flowers is that the seeds germinate long enough, as well as the seedlings grow and grow stronger. Therefore, in order to see plants in flowers as early as June, seedlings should be planted for seedlings as early as the end of January, and in the southern regions at the end of February.
Let’s look at step by step how to do this.
When planting seeds for seedlings on the lunar calendar
All gardeners and gardeners the best guide for planting those or other plants is the lunar calendar. After all, it is already well known to all that favorable landing days depend on a particular phase of the moon.
And if you are guided by the lunar calendar, then everyone should also be aware that neither crops nor plantings should not be engaged in the days of the full moon. And in 2018 they fall on January 31 and March 2, and in February there is no full moon. And also it is not necessary to do this in the period of the new moon, which in 2018 falls on January 17 (that it is too early for landing anyway), as well as February 16 and March 17.
Lunar calendar advises us to do landings
- February 7, 8, 21 and 22
- March 1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15
- April 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 28
In April, although it is already somewhat late for planting seeds, it’s time for picking and transplanting.
By the way, in the days of the full moon and the new moon, it is also not recommended to do other work with seedlings, and even water it.
Of course, this information is only recommended. And each is determined for itself with the landing dates. To check how the lunar calendar works, you can land a few test options. To record the landing time, and follow later on how they develop, or other instances.
1. The first thing you need to think about before planting any plants is the soil. For our today’s “beauty”, neutral or weakly acidic soil is best suited.
Many take for this the usual garden soil, process it with a solution of potassium permanganate and mix it with the store-bought special soil for seedlings. There are special blends for flowers. Universal mixes that are used for planting vegetables and berries are also suitable.
You can also prepare the soil from one part of the turf land from the garden, one part of sand and two parts of humus and peat.
2. The next thing you need to think about is the preparation of tanks for planting. There are several options for this.
- You can use a special plastic box with a lid used for growing seedlings. Someone puts in an ordinary plastic box of cake. In this case, you need to provide shelter for the box to create a greenhouse effect. At first, the box can be covered with ordinary glass or plastic bag.
Thus, it is possible to plant not particularly capricious plants with good germination.
- For more gentle creatures, there is another way of sowing — in peat tablets. The method is excellent, with 100% germination.
3. Seed preparation. Currently, seeds are sold mostly in pellets. These are very convenient to plant after a certain, specified distance. Their only drawback is that there are quite a few of them in one package sold. Especially for varietal plants.
And many collect the seeds themselves. Of those boxes that are in abundance can be found on flower bushes. They are very small. In one gram, there are about 3,000 — 5,000 thousand pieces. And it is clear that such sow will be more difficult. Rather, it is not so difficult to sow them, but then after picking you will have to work hard.
Such seeds are best mixed with sand before planting. Therefore, prepare it in advance.
Next, we consider landing methods in more detail.
Features of sowing seeds for seedlings in plastic boxes
And so we have the land ready and ready for planting capacity. What to do next?
1. The day before planting should be filled with a mixture of earth. Liberally pour it with some fungicide for disinfection and for the prevention of root rot and blackleg disease. At home, usually dissolve a solution of potassium permanganate, and they are treated.
2. The next day, thoroughly loosen the soil. It should be wet. Take out a part of the land and compact the rest with a ruler, carefully trimming all edges and the entire surface.
3. Then pour in the soil that was taken from the box. Some particularly pedantic gardeners prefer to sift it further.
The sifted layer must be at least 2, but not more than 4 cm.
It also needs to be leveled and lightly tamped with a ruler. This is necessary so that the seeds lie flat on the surface, and also sprout evenly.
The fact is that the seeds of petunias are not embedded in the ground, but are sown on the surface. Therefore, when planting, there should not be any voids and sinuses on the ground where the seed would fall and fall through. If it falls under the ground, it is unlikely to germinate.
4. When the earth is prepared, seeds are evenly spread in it. At the same time, they can be pre-poured into a double folded sheet and poured out in small portions.
In order to quickly dissolve the shell, it must be sprayed with water at room temperature from a spray bottle. In this case, the water jet will not only melt the shell, but also slightly press down the seeds in the soil.
5. Also a great way is to lay the seeds in the snow. That is, a rather thick layer of snow should be laid on top of the soil, about 5 centimeters thick. Then sprinkle the seeds right in the snow. This method is good with a number of undoubted advantages:
- on the snow you can see better accuracy. And you can pour somewhere, if in some part of the seed is not enough
- while the snow melts, it will completely dissolve the shell in which the seeds are placed
- the snow will slightly press the seeds and push them into the soil as much as necessary
6. At first, the greenhouse effect is important. Therefore, be sure to cover the landing capacity of the lid, glass or package.
7. Then place the containers in a warm, well-lit place. In winter, there is little light, and in this case they use special lamps for lighting. Every day, in the morning and in the evening, the lid must be opened to allow air intake and to ventilate the containers.
The ideal temperature for seed germination is 24 — 25 degrees. Approximately in a week shoots should appear.
If a cold snap is expected at night, then add additional insulation between the window and the box.
8. When shoots appear, the cover will need to be removed more often, first removing it for 20 minutes, then for 30, and so on. It can also be reduced and temperature. In the afternoon to 20 degrees, and at night to 16.
9. When the seedlings grow to 1 cm in height, the lid can be removed completely.
10. Water at first the soil, and then the seedlings are better from the spray gun, or through the pan. Or you can water the walls of the box. Transfuse seedlings can not.
11. After one or two weeks after the emergence of shoots, you can make the first feeding. To do this, it is enough to spray them with a very weak solution of potassium permanganate. And after the appearance of 3 — 4 true leaves, you can feed the plants with a solution of «Crystal». To do this, it must be diluted in a bucket of water in the amount of one tablespoon. The solution must be poured into the soil in the quantity necessary for irrigation.
Varietal terry petunias can be conveniently and quickly put into peat tablets. The method is certainly more expensive, but then germination in this case tends to 100%. I use this method to germinate expensive seeds.
For this we need directly the peat tablets themselves and a convenient container, where we will prepare them for planting. For tablets, you can buy a special mini greenhouse, or you can use a regular cake box. Or any other plastic container where you can install and soak these tablets.
1. To start the tablets should be decomposed into a prepared container.
2. Then fill them with water. At first, rather flat tablets will begin to grow in size, acquiring the appearance of some small pot. Outside, each of them is covered with a shell that will not allow it to grow in breadth. Subsequently, this shell can be removed. This is done during a picking in order to allow the roots to grow unhindered in all directions.
In principle, the shell can be left, especially if the roots have already sprouted out. And do a transplant right with her. She is very thin and has the appearance of a mesh. And in no way prevent the growth of roots.
The tablet should grow up three times. As water is absorbed, it can be poured, giving them the opportunity to grow further.
3. When the tablets have reached the desired size, get the seeds. As a rule, they are located in cones and are covered with a special soluble casing, which, as they say, contains the necessary set of micronutrients. Open one of them, and cook a toothpick. She and we will plant seeds. Pour them in a small saucer.
4. Toothpick should be moistened with water, then pick up one of the seeds and put it right in the center. It is not necessary to press and fill it with earth. It should be well visible and in no way buried. So lay out all the seeds.
5. In the first week, the seeds can not be watered. Our improvised pots are quite saturated with moisture. It is only necessary to create a greenhouse effect, and for this it is necessary to cover the box with a lid. In this state, it should be all this time. Moisture will form under the surface of the cover, then the drops will fall down, and this watering should be quite enough.
6. Put the mini greenhouse in a warm, well-lit place. The ideal temperature will be 24 degrees.
7. In the morning and in the evening it is necessary to open the greenhouse for a short time, for 2 — 3 minutes for airing. After 4 — 5 days, provided that the first shoots may appear warm enough. And after 7 — 8 days they will have to appear all. This is on condition that you have purchased good seeds.
8. After a week you can make the first watering, adding a little warm water to the pan. Then another week to withstand seedlings under the lid. At the same time, when airing, see if the ground becomes dryish, then you can again pour water into the pan, or spray the soil with a spray gun.
9. In two weeks the sprouts have already grown and stretched. It’s time to remove the top cover. Then grow as well as ordinary seedlings until the picks.
Since we have already started talking to you about different ways of planting petunias, we should not miss such a new and interesting way, like landing in a “snail”. No, of course we will not literally plant in a cochlea, it is simply called a way. By the way, it is also used in planting lobelia, other flowers with small seeds and remontant strawberries.
Therefore, perhaps this method will interest you.
I myself never planted plants in this way. But watched germination in the video. In principle, it is pretty good.
Please note that Epin is used for germination. Apparently he contributes to such good germination.
Will you plant so, or not, I do not know. But as a way, it will probably be interesting for you. In any case, take note of it.
And so, the seeds were planted, and they are already beginning to germinate. Now it is important to save them and grow to the state and time when we can transplant them into the ground.
Until that time, they should be cared for, fed, properly watered, dived and trimmed. And also to fight diseases, if any. This will be discussed in the following material.
Immediately at the beginning of the article I will touch on the topic of watering. As has already been said more than once today, excessive watering should be avoided. Also, tender and small leaves in the growth phase also do not like excess water and it is not recommended to water it on the leaves.
Therefore, even watered seedlings in several interesting ways.
- through pallet
- on the very edge of the landing capacity
- using a syringe without a needle
- rubber bulb, directly deepening it into the soil
That is, any way is good, as long as it does not affect the leaves.
Petunia as well as other plants dive. That is, they are transplanted into larger containers, each plant in a separate pot.
Although, if you immediately planted them in separate cups, then a pick is not needed. But for the most part it is not possible to plant all at once in separate containers, so these plants grow all together. And when they have 2 — 3 pairs of true leaves, it comes time to replant them.
For picking it is necessary to prepare separate small cups. In the bottom it is necessary to make holes so that there is no stagnation of water. They need to be filled with the same soil as the seeds were sown. With the help of an old handle from a screwdriver, or a small stick, in the center of the pot with the earth, make a hole where we will replant the seedlings.
On the eve of transplanting, all seedlings should be watered in order to make it easier to remove from the soil during transplantation, and in order not to damage the roots.
First of all we plant strong and large saplings into prepared glasses. To do this, carefully remove them from the common box, lightly shake off the excess earth. During this, all the roots slightly straighten and fall down. And in this form we lower them into the hole of the glass prepared in advance.
Deepen the plant is not necessary. As well as tamping. In the first case, you can damage the roots and disrupt the usual «standard of living» of the plant. In the second case, the access of oxygen to the roots will stop.
Weak plants are usually rejected. Their development is already slowed down, and they are unlikely to catch up with their more successful and strong counterparts.
After transplanting, we forget to water the plants.
It is better to feed saplings in 7 — 10 days after picking. Top dressing is better to produce a drug to strengthen and grow roots.
For the formation of a beautiful bush is applied such a method as pinching. When and how is it used?
When on a seedling the main shoot grows very quickly and does not allow lateral shoots to develop, then for even development they pinch the main stem of the plant. Two — three, or even four leaves are removed in the place where the so-called «growth point» is located. Her or pinch hands, or cut with scissors.
As a result of this procedure, new shoots will be formed from the sinuses of each leaf. And also lateral shoots that have already appeared will grow more actively. Subsequently, each of them can also pinch. In this case, the formed bush will not look like a long single scourge, but it will turn out magnificent. And the main bonus at the same time will be that it will be much more flowers.
Also for the plant can be pruned. It is needed when one, or several of the lateral shoots are ahead of others in growth. This happens when the plant lacks sunlight, and only the shoots that receive it the most grow. In this case, they are simply cut off and trimmed with the others, counting approximately by the number of leaves.
However, pinching is not always necessary. If the plant is formed uniformly, and along with the main shoot, the side ones also develop well, then in this case let the plant grow further on its own.
When we dived the seedlings, and each plant has got its own house, you can think about this feeding. During this period, leaf growth is particularly important. Through them, the plant itself and the roots receive more sunlight, and with it more useful substances are spread.
Therefore, at this stage, of course, vitamins and nitrogenous fertilizers are needed, as well as small additives of phosphorus and potassium. If you visit any store from the category “Garden, vegetable garden”, then there you can find a huge number of necessary preparations in this direction. You can purchase a complex fertilizer such as “Florin” and water the plants with them in accordance with the instructions on the package, namely 1 ml per 1 liter of water.
Or use such drugs as “Uniflor”, “Ideal”, etc. And if you do not find either one or the other, then ask the assistance of the seller-consultant who will advise you the right fertilizer in this class.
Watering plants should be moderate. Remember that excessive watering can lead to disease of seedlings.
After a week, dilute the solution again, but in even lower concentration and spray the plants on top of it.
When the leaves go to growth, it is necessary to feed and roots. And for this we already need phosphate fertilizers. And potassium is responsible for flowering; therefore, when a flower passes into the flowering phase, it is necessary to produce additional feeding with its use.
“Agricola” or “Kemira Lux” is suitable for this, or other similar fertilizers, which are currently being sold in sufficient quantities.
If you have properly prepared the soil, and also properly looked after the seedlings, then it will grow and gain strength day by day, delighting you with its green look. But if something is missed somewhere, then the plants can get sick.
The most common disease is a black leg fungus. When the plant has not yet strengthened, it has gone into growth and has a very thin long leg and not very developed upper leaves, it is very vulnerable to this disease. It looks so that the stalk at the base of the ground begins to rot first, and then the plant simply falls.
This disease is often caused by abundant watering and high humidity. When a plant in such conditions receives little light and heat.
Or, when the land before planting is simply not treated with potassium permanganate, or another fungicide.
In the case of infection, diseased plants should be removed immediately so that infection does not happen to others. And also shed the soil with a strong solution of potassium permanganate, or 40% formalin solution. There is also a way in which around the roots sprinkled calcined in a frying pan and sifted sand.
Another common problem is chlorosis, or iron deficiency. It lies in the fact that the leaves begin to turn yellow. Yellowing can both all of them, and partially. To cope with this problem will help iron-containing drugs, such as «Ferovit», containing iron chelate.
Also on the seedlings can live spider mite. In this case, a spiderweb appears on the plants, and the plant itself begins to wither away. To get rid of the tick will help drugs such as «Aktellik», «Neoron» or «Fitoverm».
And also sometimes gardeners themselves, lovers make such stupid mistakes that lead to plant diseases. For example, water them with the remnants of tea, or «meat» or «milky» water.
Thus, mold appears on the soil, which prevents sprouts from developing normally, and leads to their death. And if they are watered before the emergence of seedlings, they may not wait.
When and how can you plant a petunia in open ground
So, our plants have become quite large, and some of them even bloomed, which pleases is incredible. And on the street it becomes more and more warm and serene days. So it’s time to think about how to take them to fresh air and gradually prepare for planting in open ground.
But for a start, the pots of seedlings can be transferred to a greenhouse, or greenhouse. Depending on the weather, this can be done in May. And in warm areas, even in April.
If the nights are still cold, then at night the plants can be covered with a covering material, making something like a small greenhouse in a greenhouse. In the afternoon, remove the material. Thus, we harden our plants a little. About two weeks after the night shelters, you can not worry about the seedlings, they have already adapted and now they will not freeze.
Watering and fertilizing during this period is exactly the same as during the care in the house.
When the time comes for planting in open ground, it is better to do it in the evening. At night, not so hot, and the plant during this time will be able to slightly recover and gain strength.
Planting should be at a depth of at least 10 cm. If you plant small-flowered plants, the distance between plants should be 18 — 20 cm. If you plant large-flowered varieties of petunias, then the distance should be slightly increased, namely, seedlings should be planted at a distance of 23 — 25 cm each from friend. Ampel varieties are planted at a distance of 28 — 30 cm.
Terms of planting seedlings are directly dependent on the climate zone where you live. In the southern regions of our country, it is planted since April. And where it is cooler, you can land in the middle or even the end of May.
Before planting, it is necessary to dig up or loosen the soil, apply organic fertilizer and water the soil well. Try not to damage the roots, and place them in the hole so that they do not stick out to the side and up. Do it carefully and with great love and care for the plant.
Petunia is such a beautiful and tender plant that you want to take care of and want to admire it. What we basically do when we grow bushes from the smallest seed to a fragrant large bush covered with flowers.
And she tries to give us all the best that is in her. And the whole summer and part of autumn pleases us with its magnificent flowers.
And I hope that thanks to today’s article you will find answers to all questions related to planting seeds and caring for the sprouts of this beautiful plant. And you will grow a lot of plants that will please you.
Great landings to you and a whole sea of beautiful flowers!