Good all the time of day!
The last month has come, when you can still sow seeds for seedlings. It will take a little more time and a huge army of summer residents, loaded with green seedlings will go to their garden plots.
What gardeners will carry with them? Cabbage, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, zucchini and, of course, cucumbers.
Perhaps there is not a single amateur gardener who would not grow these plants on his plot. They are good both in salad and in pickling. Regardless of weather conditions, cucumber seedlings are planted annually on a personal subsidiary farm.
And a great help in the cultivation of this crop have greenhouses and greenhouses. Using these shelters, the harvest of your favorite vegetables can be obtained even much earlier than by planting them in open ground.
It goes without saying that the crop grown in the greenhouse, much more numerous and better than the one that was born on open ground.
And although using a greenhouse, they can be planted in it not only by young seedlings, but also by seed, experienced gardeners are advised not to be too lazy, but to grow them at home, and then later plant them in a permanent place.
When to plant cucumbers on the lunar calendar in 2018
Those who have been engaged in this vegetable crop for a long time, have undoubtedly accumulated rich experience in their cultivation. However, the majority still use the lunar calendar data to navigate the timing of planting seeds and the subsequent planting of ready-made seedlings on their site.
For the choice of favorable days use the state of the moon or, as they say phases. From what kind of moon, growing or decreasing, which crops to plant depends on: root crops or those that produce fruits above the ground.
So, with the rising moon, the juices in the plants go from the roots to the top. When waning, everything happens the other way around. And at full moon, nutrients are concentrated in plants as much as possible.
Thus, the optimal time for planting cucumbers in April will be 2, 3, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26 and 29 April. April 30 — on the day of the full moon, as well as on the days on which the new moon falls, and it is not recommended to conduct any landing work on April 15, 16 and 17.
If you decide to use the month of May for planting cucumbers, then favorable days will be such as 6, 9, 10, 11, 18, 19, 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28 May.
This month is already quite warm, and therefore you can sow the seeds immediately in the ground, naturally under a film cover, or in greenhouses.
And unfavorable days for planting cucumbers in May will be days from 14 to 16, as well as May 29.
It is possible to plant cucumbers on your plot either by seedlings (which is done by almost every gardener), or by seeds. In the second case, do not mess with the seedlings, but there is a risk of not getting a harvest.
Therefore, it is still better to spend time on the preparatory work on growing small plants, and then shoot the wonderful green cucumbers.
Their cultivation is always carried out in several stages. It all begins with the preparation of seeds for sowing into the soil.
Usually purchased seeds are used for planting. However, many often leave their own for further landing. Especially if the grown vegetables were very tasty. Here, unlike the purchased ones, they need to be disinfected by soaking in a solution of potassium permanganate.
Further, even though they are purchased, although you need to check your quality. To do this, dissolve a spoonful of salt in a glass of water and drop seeds there. Those that sink to the bottom are suitable for landing. We get them and we prepare further. Those that surfaced are dummies, we don’t need them.
At the next stage, they can be hardened, although you can do without it. Here, someone is used to, or loves. This will not greatly affect germination.
However, resistance to temperature changes in plants may be higher. If you decide on this procedure, then for the start of hours for 10 seeds should be placed in the refrigerator, then within 8 hours to warm the battery.
And finally, the last stage of seed preparation for sowing is soaking.
Seeds are laid out on a damp cloth, a saucer or a plate with them is placed in a warm place. Periodically check that the cloth was wet, if necessary, add water at room temperature. Without much enthusiasm, only slightly moistened. When the seeds «hatch» — there will be small sprouts, they can begin to sow.
This is an important question, because different plants prefer different soil composition.
The composition of the soil may include components such as turf soil, peat, sawdust and manure. You can add some sand. In addition, a mixture of fertilizers consisting of 7 g of superphosphate, 4 g of potassium sulfate, 3 g of urea and 1 g of magnesium sulfate is added to the soil.
If you do not need to deal with the composition of the soil, you can simply buy the appropriate soil in the store.
In addition, it is also necessary to select suitable containers for seedlings. Plastic cups are best for this purpose. You can, of course, get along with the boxes, but pickling cucumbers from them will be quite difficult. In a plastic cup you put one seed, in the future you will have one bush, which is easy to transplant into the soil in the garden area.
And recently, it has become popular to germinate seeds in peat tablets, but more on that later.
In the cups make holes for the care of excess moisture. Pour drainage, then the ground itself. By the way, experienced gardeners are advised to use a mixture of peat and sand in a 1: 1 ratio. In the ground we make a small depression, put a seed and sprinkle with earth. Having planted in this way all the prepared cups, pour over and cover with polyethylene.
Under the film, the containers stand until small sprouts appear. This usually occurs within three days. The temperature should be around 25 ºС. Then it will need to be lowered to 5 ºС.
In order for the shoots to grow normally, it is necessary to ensure its proper watering, lighting and temperature control. This, so to speak, is the three whales that hold the cultivation of not only cucumbers, but also other garden crops.
For normal growth, the optimum temperature is in the range from 20 to 23 degrees. In addition, you can use fitolampy.
With their help, not only temperature is maintained, but also additional lighting. For cucumbers, you need a lot of light, otherwise they will begin to reach up and then it will be inconvenient to put them in a permanent place. A light day for small seedlings should have a duration of 8 to 18 hours.
Watered plants only with warm water. The soil should always be at least hydrated. However, it is necessary to ensure that there is no strong overflow, otherwise the roots may rot. Do not use cold tap water at all. This can lead not only to a slowdown in plant growth, but even to their death.
And one more important component of care for seedlings is fertilizers. Proper and timely feeding will give them an advantage in growth and further survival, which will undoubtedly affect the quality of the crop.
Although fertilizing is carried out not so often, only 2-3 times during growth, but still it is necessary to do it.
The first feeding is done immediately after the first leaf appears. When the second appears, the second dressing is done accordingly. Well, the third is held 15 days after the fertilizer was applied a second time.
Search for fertilizers that are needed for seedlings is not difficult. In any country store you will find everything you need for your green pets.
However, many people prefer to use scrap materials, i.e. Prepare a top dressing yourself. For the very first feeding, it is best to mix organic fertilizer with mineral fertilizer.
For example, we breed manure in a bucket in a 1: 1 ratio and add 20 g of superphosphate there. If instead of manure to use bird droppings, then it is bred in a ratio of 1:10.
In general, recipes for the preparation of such fertilizers are many. Take this:
- water — 5 l;
- bird droppings — 100 g;
- superphosphates — 7 g;
- ammonium nitrate — 3 g;
- potassium sulfate — 4 g;
This composition is used for the first feeding. For subsequent dressings, the concentration of the constituents is usually doubled. Also, for the last feeding the following composition is well suited:
- water — 10 liters;
- urea — 15 g;
- superphosphate — 40 g;
- potassium salt — 10 g;
By the way, the potassium salt should be in the form of sulfate, not chloride, since chlorine has a negative effect on plant growth.
If you buy fertilizers in a store, then such complex compounds as «Effecton», «Humate potassium» and «Humate sodium» are well suited.
Some gardeners recommend using a mixture of chicken manure and ash.
Also, fertilizing with yeast is quite common. Any of them are used for this. They are bred in warm water. Such a top dressing is introduced for the first time after the introduction of the first nitrogen supplement, and then after the second — phosphate. It is believed that two times to make yeast is enough.
Thus, applying the correct technology of growing seedlings, you will receive later, after planting it in a greenhouse or simply in open ground, a good harvest.
And at the end of this topic, a small video on growing cucumber seedlings at home.
Under all conditions of planting and care, be prepared to collect large yields.
Features of growing seedlings in peat tablets
Now quite popular cultivation method for many crops, has become the use of peat tablets.
What good is this way. Peat tablets are a ready substrate with all the necessary nutrients. They are sold in a special container, so look for cups, drawers just do not have to. And one more important plus — the seedlings ready for transplanting into the soil are planted immediately in this pill.
Thus, neither diving nor separating from the ground is necessary. This means that the probability of damage to the roots is absent.
If you just have a set of peat tablets without special packaging in the form of cells, then choosing containers for growing choose such that their height is at least 10 cm.
The technology of sowing seeds is quite simple. All stages are exactly the same as in ordinary sowing. That is, the preparation of seeds, their processing and soaking.
Next, pour the tablets with water, right in the container. And after they are sufficiently swollen, in the center of the pill, put one seed in the recess there.
Sprinkle with earth, pour over and cover with film. Everything. There are no long-term cares to prepare the soil and search for containers Here, as they say, «all inclusive».
After the emergence of seedlings, the film is removed and further cultivation proceeds as with the standard method.
The only thing that needs to be done regularly and often is watering. Since the device is such tablets (coconut fiber and peat) that they quickly absorb moisture, it is necessary to monitor the drying of the soil. If you can not do their own watering, you can pour water on the bottom of the tank, where there are tablets with seedlings. The tablets themselves absorb the required amount of water.
How and when to plant cucumbers in a polycarbonate greenhouse
What are good greenhouses? They can not only grow vegetables all year round (with heating), but also plant the plants not only with small seedlings, but even immediately with seeds.
This is especially true of such modern greenhouses as polycarbonate. The material from which they are made is sufficiently resistant to various weather conditions, wear-resistant. And this means that owning such a greenhouse can not look at the weather conditions, and planting when you want.
If there is heating in the greenhouse, the crops can be started as early as the end of March — April. If this is not available, then landing falls at the end of April — May. This is mainly characteristic of central Russia.
Of the preferred seed varieties, for greenhouses, the best will be self-pollinated. Otherwise, you will have to lure insects for these purposes.
If you plant seedlings in the greenhouse with already prepared strong plants, then it will be possible to plant out only when 3-4 already formed leaves appear on their stems, a pair of antennae. In addition, the stem must be strong enough, and the root system developed.
When sowing seeds, plants do not need to go through all the stages of adaptation, as when growing seedlings. Terms for ripening will decrease somewhat and you will be able to get a harvest a little earlier. However, here we must take into account the thermal regime. If your greenhouse is not heated, then you should not plant it earlier than May.
Since cucumbers need loose and rich in organic soil, it will be necessary to bring a fairly large amount of either manure or compost into the greenhouse (about 15 kg per 1 sq. M). If something has already been grown in the greenhouse, then in autumn it is necessary to remove the top layer of five cm.
After that, treat the soil with a solution of copper sulfate at the rate of 1 tbsp. spoon for 10 liters of water. Now you need to scatter fertilizer per 1 sq. Km. m 25 kg of manure, 40 g of phosphate fertilizers and 40 g of potash fertilizers.
So leave until spring. In the spring, we bring a new layer of soil into the greenhouse, which consists of a mixture of peat (5 parts), humus (3 parts) and sod soil (2 parts). Everything is loosened with a rake, and you can start planting.
The nature of planting depends on the structure and size of the greenhouse. There are such types of landings as tape: two-line, single-line and chess.
If the greenhouse is large, then the common method is to arrange one bed in the center, where the plants are planted in two rows, and two beds near the walls, where there is one row of plants.
The holes in the beds are made so that they could pass the plant well. At the bottom of the hole compost or peat is poured. After that, the bed is watered and, finally, the plant itself is planted. Next, sprinkle and mulch with peat.
All cucumbers planted. Now there are only cares for their care.
Terms and features of planting seeds in open ground
As already mentioned, cucumbers are planted with seedlings and seeds immediately in open ground. The first way to plant is always better. But if you do not want to mess with seedlings, then planting seeds is also an option. Only need to take into account some features.
First of all, this is the temperature of the soil. By the time of planting seeds, it should be at least 15 degrees. But to delay, as they say, is not worth it. Outdoors, seedlings grow well at temperatures from +18 to +25 degrees. If its development falls on the July heat, then it may die.
There is an interesting sign: if the potatoes sprouted, then the frost has passed. That’s when you can sow cucumbers in open ground.
If you use seeds purchased in the store for planting, and this happens most often, then on the back of the bag you can read about the timing of their planting. In addition, in different regions, the timing may be different, depending on climatic conditions. In the middle lane is the beginning of May, and in the northern regions — the end of May and even June.
If you use your own seed for planting, then seeds with the age of up to 2 years have the greatest germination. If they were stored for more than this period, their germination may be worse.
Seed preparation is exactly the same as when planted on seedlings. Only three days before planting, the seeds are soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, keeping them there until sowing.
The bed must be prepared: to plow, remove weeds and apply fertilizer. The most common of many is such as «Agricola.»
On 1 square. m consumes about 17 g of fertilizer. However, everything is written on the package.
Preparing the beds, make holes for seeds. You can make furrows with a depth of 2 cm. If you plant in the holes, then the distance between them should be 50-60 cm. When planting crops that are tied up on the trellis, it decreases to 25-30 cm.
The wells must be moistened if the soil is dry. Up to 4 seeds are sown in one well. Then everything is covered with earth. If there is a chance of ants, slugs or mice being attacked, a mixture of ground black and red pepper can be scattered along the garden bed.
One of the interesting and original know-how in growing this vegetable is its growing in a barrel.
It is believed that such a method is beneficial, firstly, by saving space, and secondly by limiting root growth to width. But unlimited growth in depth. In addition, containers can be placed in the most convenient and favorable places. Also, in the barrel the soil warms up better than in the garden, and the heated soil is an important condition for the growth of cucumbers.
There is no risk of plant death due to the fact that they may suddenly freeze. Well, the main thing — watering. The moisture in the barrel is held much better than in the garden. This means that you can reduce watering, which is convenient if you have no time to water the garden too often.
How to grow cucumbers in the barrel, see this video.
Now everything is exactly! All these tips and tricks will undoubtedly help you grow a great crop. After all, what could be better than a delicious-smelling, crispy cucumber, plucked from their own garden beds!