How to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse: avoiding planting in the ground before harvesting
Good all the time of day! Today, the garden theme will be devoted to such a plant as tomatoes. They have long been considered permanent favorites in our garden plots. No gardener can not do without this culture.
This plant with red fruits is loved by almost everyone. They are eaten both fresh and salted, as well as canned. And of course, many summer salads are prepared with their presence. So tomatoes can rightly be called our folk plant.
But, before you cook something from them, you need to grow tomatoes. And it is not so simple. In this issue there are many nuances that you need to know, and today we will talk about them.
Let’s start with the fact that they can be grown depending on the climate both in the greenhouse and in the open field. But cultivation in the open field implies a rather late planting and, accordingly, not a quick harvest.
Another thing greenhouse. If it is also heated, then you can get a harvest almost all year round. Usually in greenhouses, as well as in open ground, already grown seedlings are planted. But you can plant and seed. Moreover, in this case, no picks, nor any other work with the seedlings will be needed.
But let’s not rush, let’s understand in order.
In one of the articles we have already considered how to plant tomatoes on seedlings. It also described in detail how it is necessary to prepare the seeds for planting — how to soak them so that they would soon germinate. How to grow strong healthy seedlings that will give a good harvest.
And although this is most often the case, they sometimes sow seeds immediately in the greenhouse. If you plant them in this way, then the planting material still needs to be pre-tempered. To do this, it is placed in the refrigerator for five days, and kept at a temperature of five degrees. And only then they are soaked in warm water in a bottle to make the seeds germinate.
But usually in greenhouses we plant already quite large seedlings, sometimes even blooming. In order to get this, you must sow the seeds in early March. By the time of transplantation, the seedlings should be at least 60 days old.
Let’s just focus on such plants.
The soil in the greenhouse is usually prepared in autumn. Good soil will be sod or humus soil. We prepare the soil in several layers. We put straw or sawdust at the bottom, this will be warming. Then compost, and above it is the ground itself. The beds are best done with a height of 35 cm.
Fertilizers such as sodium nitrate, wood ash, potassium sulfate, and double granulated superphosphate can be applied immediately during the digging of the earth.
It is also necessary to take into account the factor that the soil in the greenhouse is isolated from the external environment, and therefore various harmful microorganisms, insects and mold develop more quickly in it.
Therefore, after harvesting, before planting a new one, it is necessary to disinfect the soil in the offseason. For this purpose, copper sulphate, solution of Bordeaux mixture or dolomite flour is well suited. You can also treat the soil and bleach. On a bucket of water it is enough to take only 500 g.
Stir, insist two hours, then filter and use. Not only the greenhouse itself is sprayed, but also the soil in it.
In addition, the land is somehow exhausted anyway, and therefore every five years it must be completely replaced.
Also, it is desirable to add peat to the soil. In general, tomatoes love clean soil — there should be no weeds, seeds and, of course, larvae and other harmful insects. It should also contain sand and ash.
When preparing for spring planting, it is necessary to prepare the soil, disinfect the greenhouse and apply the appropriate fertilizer.
It is advisable to make a warm garden bed for tomatoes. This is a pretty heat-loving plant. It is being prepared since autumn.
It all starts with the fact that a trench is dug to a depth of 40 cm, which is covered with polyethylene. Further, the layer from branches keeps within. Instead of polyethylene, you can pave the bottom and plastic bottles.
Then put the organic. These are branches from berry bushes, as well as cut tops and so on. Then the ground is poured directly, after which the organic again. At the next stage, we spill the soil well with water and again fill it with earth.
To give greater fertility, you can still repeat two layers: a layer of branches and a layer of earth. Then we cover with straw and leave for the winter. By spring, all this puff pie will rot and the bed will become suitable for planting seedlings.
Below is a diagram of one of the common soil mixtures.
Peat, humus and sod land in a ratio of 1: 1: 1. On the bucket of this mixture, add 1 liter of sand, 1 cup of wood ash and 1 tablespoon of superphosphate.
Or, as an option, you can use the soil purchased in the store.
So, the bed is prepared. The seedling was planted in March and has already reached the point when it is time to replant it in the greenhouse. True time sowing different varieties depend on their ripeness. Therefore, consider this factor.
Late ones should be sown in February, mid-ripening — at the beginning or middle of March, and early ones — at the end of March.
When the first two leaves appear, the seedlings swoop, and when they reach 30-35 cm in height, they can be transplanted into a greenhouse.
Before you start planting seedlings, prepare the wells, which are then poured with a solution of hot potassium permanganate. It is recommended to do this the day before the intended landing. The depth of the holes should be 15 cm. But sometimes they are dug out and deeper, this is done if the seedlings have outgrown or need to be deepened.
Saplings transplanted with a lump of earth. If you grow them in peat pots, then you do not need to dig up plants from them. We plant right in them.
The wells are arranged in accordance with the chosen landing pattern: in one row, in two rows, or in a checkerboard pattern.
Depending on the varieties, the scheme may be different, as well as the distance between plants.
In addition, this scheme also depends on the size of your greenhouse. For example, for a 3×8 greenhouse, the following planting pattern is recommended:
If the greenhouse is not very wide, the beds are made along the long walls, where the plants are planted in one row. Their width in this case is 60-90 cm. Between them they make a passage from 50 to 60 cm wide. At the same time, early and not very high seedlings are usually planted in two rows in a checkerboard pattern. Between plants, an interval of 35-40 cm is made, and between the rows — 50-60 cm.
Indeterminate and standard varieties of tomatoes, which are more powerful and form one stem, are planted somewhat thicker. That is, the distance between the plants is 25-30 cm, and the row-spacing — 45-50 cm.
It is possible to offer such a landing scheme:
— In two beds, each 1-1.5 m wide and with one wide aisle between them.
— In three beds, each 0.6-0.7 m wide and with two aisles between them.
If there are two wide beds in the greenhouse, it is better to plant the plants according to the two-line scheme. At the same time, undersized varieties are arranged in a staggered manner with a distance of 40 cm in one line, the distance between the rows of a single bed is 50-60 cm, and the width of the passage is 80 cm.
Mid-season varieties are planted slightly thicker — with a distance between them up to 30 cm, the distance between the rows — up to 60 cm, and the width of the passage between the beds — 80-90 cm.
And finally, tall varieties are planted at a distance of up to 50 cm in one line, the distance between rows is 70-80 cm, and the width of the passage is 80-90 cm.
If you have made three beds, then undersized varieties are planted in one line with the distance between plants up to 40 cm. Medium-growth plants are planted in two rows with a distance in the same row between plants up to 50 cm and between rows in a bed up to 30 cm. this 50 cm
The landing scheme is preferable to chess. Tall varieties, planted in one row with a distance between plants of 50-60 cm, and the width of the passage between the beds from 50 to 60 cm.
Similar planting schemes can be used when planting plants on the street.
And so, the seedlings were planted in their permanent place. I must say that tomatoes are not afraid of transplants, and they perfectly adapt to new conditions. They do not get sick, quickly take root, and the very next day they delight us with their “live” appearance.
However, in order to get a good healthy harvest, plants need a multi-faceted care. This process includes activities such as garter, dressing, watering, pasynkovanie and pest control.
All this requires certain skills, and of course diligence and time.
Let’s look at everything in order.
Particular attention is paid to the issue of tomato staking or simply, the removal of axillary shoots. Why do you need to do this?
The fact is that the emergence of new shoots leads to an increase in the number of fruits. It seems to be good. However, since the plant spends a lot of power on growth and their maturation, then these forces are simply not enough, and the fruits grow very small. In addition, excessive branching obscures the plant, which also does not contribute to obtaining excellent yield.
Therefore, when axillary shoots appear and reach 2-3 cm, they must be carefully broken out. This procedure is a pasynkovanie.
In order to distinguish the stepchild from this escape, look carefully: the stepchild always grows out of the leaf bosom. And the first sheet appears, and then above the leaf escape.
It is necessary to begin the removal procedure after the first stepson appears under the first flower brush. The main thing is not to allow it to grow by more than 5 cm. For the plant as a whole, this will be the most painless. A “penis”, which forms at the place of separation, will quickly drag on, and pathogens will not penetrate through it. Himself «penechek» leave the size of 1 cm.
Stepchildren are removed only with their hands, because the plant itself can be damaged with a tool. Aspiring, as a result, forms the bush itself.
Depending on the variety, they form tomatoes in one, two and three stems.
For greenhouses most often characterized by the formation of plants in one stem. As a result, they will be lit much better and will not be obscured. After the first blooming brush is formed, under it begins to grow the stepson, which must be immediately cut off. The bottom leaves break as well.
Then all side shoots that start to grow should also be removed. Leave only the flowering brush.
When forming a bush in two stems, we leave only one strong stepson under the first flowering brush. Everything else that grows below: leaves and side shoots, neatly cut off.
And the formation of three stalks is that leave, respectively, two stepson after the first flowering brush. Everything else is deleted.
The video below shows the whole process of topping tomatoes.
Here you can clearly see how the stepchildren are removed, or rather, the broken out steps. And also tells about the different varieties of tomatoes and the formation of the bush.
Tomatoes are among those plants that need to be tied up, since their growth can be higher than human, and reach two or more meters. This is especially true for tall varieties.
Tying is to attach the stalks of the plant to the support. In addition, tied with a brush and fruits. Tying is necessary immediately after the pinching and the appearance of the ovary.
Props can be made of any kind, from the material that you have on hand. They can also be in the form of tapestries, or they can be simply greenhouses of twine lowered from the ceiling.
You can also use sticks stuck in the ground as a support. To them and tie a stalk. This method is good for undersized varieties.
You can also build a trellis around the bush.
In general, as you can see a lot of options. You have to decide for yourself how best to make a garter — it all depends on the greenhouse itself, and on its design.
For example, for small film greenhouses and greenhouses, only individual tying of each bush to its rail is suitable. At the same time, the variety should not be tall, otherwise it will fall along with the garter.
If you have planted a variety that gives a lot of fruit, it is better to use a metal frame in the form of a coarse mesh, which wraps around the bush (see figure above).
Tall and high-yielding varieties are well tied up on the trellis.
This video shows how to properly tie up plants.
And also gives other useful tips that will be useful for novice gardeners.
An important point in the cultivation of tomatoes is their feeding — fertilizer. Properly chosen drugs have a good effect on the formation of the plant itself, and on the quality of fruiting. However, “overdoing” with them is completely useless.
10 days after the seedlings are planted in the greenhouse, the first fertilizer can be applied. Nitrofoska is best suited, it should be prepared at the rate of 1 tbsp. l 10 liters of water. And also a liquid mulleit is perfect: 0.5 liters per 10 liters of water.
One liter of this mixture is added to each plant. Already used granulated fertilizers are also used.
After 10-12 days, repeated feeding is carried out. Here already as a fertilizer is a solution containing 1 tsp. potassium sulfate and 1 tbsp. l Fertility fertilizer purchased from the store. This amount is dissolved in 10 liters of water and is also applied to each plant. For the season you need to make up to 4 dressings.
Prepare organic fertilizer and independently. For this, weeds from the vegetable garden are filled with water in a large container, for example, a 20-liter bucket will do. All this with periodic stirring aged in a greenhouse for 2 weeks. And then you can water the plants with this odorous solution.
During the period of infusion, the process of natural fermentation occurs and nitrogen is released. That is, in a natural way, we obtain nitrogenous fertilizer that is useful for the growth and development of seedlings.
But it should be made carefully. If you water it with a clean solution, then you can simply “burn” the roots and the bush will start to dry gradually. Therefore, it is diluted with water at the rate of one liter of the mixture per 10 liters of water.
Then the plants should be watered thoroughly and only then add about two liters of the obtained diluted mixture under each bush.
There is one more thing.
In order for all the emerging flowers to produce fruits, they are pollinated by bees and bumblebees. But in their greenhouses is not enough, especially when it is very hot. And so some gardeners use this method of selfing, as a slight shaking of the twigs. During this action, pollen from some flowers gets on the other, thereby contributing to a better ovary.
Also for the formation of ovaries used such fertilizer as the ovary, Energen or Bud. They are diluted in accordance with the instructions on the package and sprayed with a brush from the sprayer. All you need to spend 3 — 4 spraying.
It happens that when flowers have already appeared on the bushes, you can notice some especially large ones. They differ from others in that they have a lot of petals, and the shape of the flower itself is rather uneven. You notice them immediately.
So, it is better to remove such flowers. As a rule, a fruit is also formed from such a flower, but it is uneven, hilly, and the plant needs to expend a lot of energy on its growth. While other fruits get less than they could get. And the result is also underdeveloped.
That without which it is impossible to do at all — it is watering. In the first days of planting tomatoes, they do not often water. Water should be separated and warm — 20-22 degrees.
As soon as the plants start to grow actively, watering is carried out every 4 to 5 days before the flowering begins. Experimentally calculated that it is enough to spend 5 liters of water per 1 square. m. If before the next watering you find that the soil is wet, then the rate can be reduced to 3 liters.
At the time of flowering plants, the rate of water consumption increases to 12 l / 1 square. m. Tomatoes love moisture, and if it is not possible to do it often, then drip irrigation can be carried out. At the same time moisture gets directly under a plant and the soil is in constant moistening.
Manual watering is recommended to do only in the morning or evening hours.
In addition, to preserve soil moisture, it is mulched with straw or dry grass.
For ease of watering in the greenhouse put barrels. In them, the water warms up to the temperature of the greenhouse, which affects favorably the growth, development of the plant and obtaining a good harvest.
14-16 days before harvesting, the last watering is carried out. This process accelerates the ripening of the fruit.
The most common diseases of tomatoes in the greenhouse are blight, fusarium wilt and gray rot.
Late blight — A fungal disease, which is more susceptible to tomatoes growing in open ground. However, it may appear in greenhouse plants, since the cause of the disease is increased humidity. The disease manifests itself in the appearance of gray — brown shapeless spots on the whole plant.
At first, plant leaves are affected. And if time is not prevented, then the disease will go to the fruit.
Even if you have reaped a normal harvest, it may not be stored for a long time. After two or three weeks, the fruits will begin to deteriorate, thereby affecting and lying nearby.
To combat this disease, plants are treated with solutions of drugs such as Barrier or Barrier (prepared: 5-7 g / 10 l of water).
Or Fitosporin is used. It is diluted with water in accordance with the instructions, then sprayed with a solution, both the plants themselves and the soil is shed. Phytosporin is a biological compound, and is not only a means of controlling late blight, but also fertilizes plants.
If you can not cope with the disease, and the plant is still ill, then when you remove it in any case, do not put it in the compost pit. It will infect the whole earth. Remote diseased plants should be carefully packed in a bag and taken to a landfill. If you leave it in the garden, then the spores will scatter and infect other plants susceptible to the same disease.
Gray rot — Another fungal disease. Reason: poor air circulation. Small round spots appear on the plants, which subsequently grow and turn into watery brown spots.
To control, it is necessary to spray the plants with the same preparations as in late blight (Barrier and Barrier). In addition, the necessary and disinfection of the soil, as well as regular ventilation of the greenhouse.
Concerning fusarium wilt, it usually affects young plants. Signs of this: yellowing of leaves and their subsequent abscission. To combat, it is necessary to treat the plants with the preparation Barrier at the rate of 20 g / 10 l of water or 2% solution of copper sulphate. Spray should be no later than two weeks before harvest.
There is also a disease like brown spot. It also occurs when the greenhouse is wet enough. This happens in the cold summer when it is constantly raining outside. At the same time, it is damp not only under the roof, but also outside, and therefore airing does not help.
The disease is expressed in that the leaves begin to dry, curl up and turn brown. Its difference from late blight is that only the leaves suffer, the fruits are not susceptible to it. But the leaves are no less important in the formation and development of the fruit.
Therefore, if the summer is cool, it is better not to allow this disease and begin to carry out preventive work ahead of time. To do this, we use Phytosporin again, dilute it in accordance with the instructions and spray the plant from all sides, including the bottom of the leaves.
If the plant is already sick, then it is necessary to dilute the drug in large proportions, approximately increasing its concentration two to three times. And spray in several stages, that is, approximately every 5 — 6 days.
Or you can use similar drugs Alirin and Gamar. They are also of biological origin and are completely safe.
Also in the fight against any fungal and mold diseases, you can use such chemicals as Home, Profit-gold, Ordan. They can also fight against diseases, but in this case the plant itself will accumulate chemistry, which is highly undesirable.
You should also be aware that when using such drugs, the fruits in food can be used only after a certain period after treatment. That is, the drug must «decompose», become safe. For each of these preparations, a period is indicated on the package when it will be possible to eat fruits from treated plants.
By the way, this does not apply to phytosporin. It is completely biological, and the fruit can be eaten immediately after treatment with the drug. Of course, having washed it thoroughly in running water.
Currently, there are certain varieties of tomatoes with increased resistance to fungal diseases. Therefore, if you manage to acquire such planting material, then give him preference. Usually such information is indicated on the package.
Methods of growing tomatoes and cucumbers in the same greenhouse
Usually for the cultivation of different plant species use different greenhouses. But what to do if there is no such possibility. It turns out you can grow, for example, cucumbers and tomatoes under the same roof, if you create the best conditions for them. For cucumbers, warm and wet, and for tomatoes — well ventilated and warm enough and dry.
One of the preferred methods is to create three rows. One is done in the middle and is reserved for cucumbers, and two on the sides, respectively, under the tomatoes. At the same time, in order to provide good illumination to plants, it is better to plant low-growing varieties here, as well as determinant hybrids with different maturity.
Humidity is better to withstand the average for both plants within 70%, the temperature during the day should be about + 25 ° C, and at night + 19 ° C.
Alternatively, you can divide the greenhouse into two parts — in one cucumber, and in the other tomatoes, but at the same time, each part is enclosed by a plastic curtain. This will allow us to create our own optimal conditions for each culture.
With this option, you can grow tall varieties of tomatoes.
For the cultivation of early harvest requires the same conditions as for the rest, but with the only difference that the planting time will be somewhat different.
Early tomatoes are stunted varieties, among which the most popular are the Chosen One, Winnie the Pooh, the Hermitage and Raja. Or maybe you have some of your favorite varieties. In addition to these varieties, some gardeners plant small-fruited ones: “Boni-M”, “Raisin” and “Salute”.
On average, the dates for sowing seeds fall at the end of March and the beginning of April. But, these terms are calculated, nevertheless, based on the time of ripening of different varieties.
So, early tomatoes turn red after 100 days after sowing, medium ones — after 120 days and late ones — after 130. On this basis, the seeds are sown. Therefore, if by the beginning of summer it is necessary to get the first crop of early tomatoes, then it is necessary to prepare the seeds for sowing in January, and plant the seedlings in the ground, respectively, in late April.
After seed preparation and germination, they can be sown. How to do this, we have already analyzed in detail, so here I will only tell you about the most basic points.
Seeds are planted in separate containers (plastic cup) and in a common container (box). When planted in the seedling box, the distance between the seeds should not be less than 1 cm.
After sowing, the seeds are sprinkled with earth, moistened with a spray bottle and covered with a film. Place this mini-greenhouse preferably in a well-lit place — on the windowsill. If the light is low, you need to organize additional lighting.
The next stage is a picking. It is necessary only in the case of growing seedlings in a common box. In this case, transplanted or with a lump of earth, or without it.
If you are planting seedlings in open ground, then you should wait until the average daily temperature is above + 12⁰С.
No later than 10 days before transplanting seedlings into the greenhouse, it is necessary to prepare the soil. About all the nuances of this process described above. In general, this is a digging, fertilization, disinfection of soil and greenhouses.
After transplanting seedlings, an important point begins with the care of her. The main thing is to water in time, but not to allow strong waterlogging. As for feeding, fertilizers are applied both mineral and organic. It should be borne in mind that with a strong stretching of the plants, it is necessary to stop the mineral dressing and go only to organic matter. It is also possible to use for top dressing and ashes.
In general, the care is similar to that for other varieties of tomatoes. Garter, if necessary, pasynkovanie with the formation of bushes. If the planted varieties give a lot of fruit, the garter is necessary, despite their short stature. Otherwise, the bushes may break under the weight of the fruit.
Early tomatoes can be grown and using the know-how that appeared not so long ago. This cultivation in barrels. Watch the video, which describes what this method is.
Also here are many useful tips for growing ordinary tomatoes. Therefore, the video is useful in any case.
All varieties of tomatoes differ not only in size and color, but also in taste. Such varieties that have a juicy sweet taste are derived. Below is a small selection of such varieties.
This is a hybrid that appeared relatively recently, in 2008.
It can be grown on poor and rich soils in both southern and northern climatic zones. It is best suited for cultivation in greenhouses. It is characterized by high yield and characteristic pear shape, for which he received its name.
Outwardly, somewhat similar to the previous grade. But it is distinguished by its taste.
This is a lianoid plant that has fast and unlimited growth. It is intended only for greenhouses, where it can reach a length of up to 2 m. The leaves of the plant resemble the foliage of potatoes. Under optimal conditions, fruits from mid-July until the end of October.
This is an early ripe variety, good in salads and sauces. The bush grows to 50 cm.
Since the variety is early ripe, no more than 85 days pass from sowing the seeds to obtaining technically ripe fruits.
From 1 square. m. you can get up to 20 kg yield. Differs in a short growing season, compact size and no need to sow a plant.
The name speaks for itself. Fruits can reach a mass of up to 400 g, and sometimes up to 600 g. This is a fairly high-yielding variety grown both in greenhouses and in the open field. In a greenhouse, a hotel plant reaches a height of up to 150 cm.
It is good both in a fresh, and salty look. With proper care from one bush can be removed up to 6 kg of crop, or 18 kg per 1 square. m. When grown quite unpretentious and resistant to various diseases.
Differs in large fruits, resistance to change of weather conditions. Moreover, if in more northern areas the weight of the fruits may be somewhat less, but the taste qualities are absolutely identical, i.e. do not change.
The fruits are large, ribbed, weighing up to 300 g. This is an early ripe variety with a growing season of about 90 days. Yield, as in the previous variety is quite high — 6 kg per bush. It is grown up both in an open ground, and in the greenhouse.
Differs large fruits, high yield and resistance to various diseases.
These are the varieties you can try to grow on your site. And whichever of them you grow, they all require care and care. How are we going to care for the plants, such a crop and get.
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