Alligator pear, forest oil, a cow for the poor — surprisingly, but all this — the names invented by different nations, to refer to the same fruit.
The fruit of American Persei — avocado, known by various names for several thousand years. Nowadays, avocados are more affordable than in the times of the ancient Aztecs; on the counter of any supermarket there are fresh and tasty fruits all year round.
Among the Indian tribes that inhabited the territory of South America, both wood, bark, and perseus foliage used them; they were used in construction and healing.
However, the most valuable gifts of the tree were considered its fruits — tasty and nutritious, able to satisfy hunger for a long time, give strength and energy to these avocados, and today are very popular.
Being a traditional product on the table of Mexicans, Brazilians, Spaniards and other peoples living in the hot tropics, avocado is part of a variety of dishes: soups and sauces, salads and drinks, ice cream and other desserts.
Speaking of avocado, one can not fail to mention its nutritional value:
- The unique nutritional value of the fetus is high in fat — the main source of energy for the body;
- Fatty acids in avocados are of plant origin, and therefore have high bioavailability and are completely absorbed in the intestines, you should not be afraid of the figure for lovers of this guest from the tropics;
- The high content of vitamins A, E and C makes avocado a valuable source of antioxidants;
- Vitamins from group B, with which the fruit is rich, have a beneficial effect on the nervous system;
- The content of potassium, essential for the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system, in avocados is only slightly inferior to bananas;
- Also worth noting is the extremely low carbohydrate content, compared to other fruits.
Table. The nutritional value of avocado fruits.
Or maybe you yourself would not mind trying your hand at growing this healthy fruit at home?
Avocados on your windowsill: Is it easy to grow a guest from a hot tropics out of a stone?
Surely, many have thought about whether it is possible to grow a perseus at home. Of course, it is easier to find an already grown tree for sale and grow it without worries and troubles, however, it is much more interesting to try your hand at tropical gardening and grow your tree from bones. It is not so difficult to do this, but a number of important points should be taken into account:
- Avocado leaves, like its bone, contain persin, a fungicidal toxin that can pose a threat to domestic animals and can cause allergic reactions in humans, if the house has animals or young children, the plant should be removed from the area of access, or it can be replaced by safer;
- At home, the tree bears fruit extremely rarely, but it lives long and looks quite impressive;
- Avocados come from subtropics, and therefore a young plant will need high humidity and a large amount of light, otherwise the Perseus will not live long;
- If the experiment is crowned with success, there is a chance that even grandchildren will eat the fruits of your labors — in natural conditions, Perseus lives to be a hundred years old.
How to grow avocado from the bone at home
To get the coveted sprout, for planting you need to use only freshly sown seed. In order to germinate, the seed is extracted only from ripe fruits, if the fruit is not fully ripe (hard under pressure), it should be wrapped in paper and put away in a dark warm place for two to three days.
There the fruit ripens, after which the bone will be ready for planting. Before germination, carefully inspect the bone, it should not be damaged, dark spots, dents, a healthy strong bone almost always germinates.
Step two: how to germinate avocados from the seed
It is possible to germinate avocado pits in several ways.
Option one: make 3 — 4 holes on the sides of the bone, insert wooden skewers or toothpicks into them, install the whole structure over a glass of water so that the bone is not more than a third in water.
Care must be taken to ensure that the water level remains the same, and water is added as needed. After some time, a crack forms on the bone, and a little later the root and stem of the plant will appear. The germination process takes from 3 to 5 weeks.
Option two: avocado bone is soaked for 40-50 minutes in warm water (no more than 45 ° C), after which it should be peeled off.
The cleaned bone is planted in the ground with a wide end down, deepening by two thirds. The soil should be periodically moistened, not allowing it to dry.
It is necessary to have patience to turn a sprout may take up to one and a half months.
Those who took advantage of the first option during the germination will have another stage — transfer to the ground.
After transplantation, the plant must be watered with prepared water.
For a young seedling, a small pot with a diameter of about 15 cm is enough; after a year, the grown-up plant will need to be transplanted into a more spacious container.
Avocados do not tolerate stagnant water, so a layer of drainage should be poured at the bottom of the pot. Avocado soil should be selected with a ph value of at least 7, since acidic soil will be detrimental to wood.
You can also add a pinch of lime, crushed eggshell or any other deoxidizing agent to the soil.
Growing avocados at home, it is necessary to create a favorable environment for him, although it is difficult to call him whimsical.
- Lighting. The tree needs to provide a sufficient amount of sunlight, the perseus are very light-requiring, this is especially important if you expect to get a harvest. In the winter period of time, most likely, the plant will need additional illumination by fitolampa. With poor lighting, the tree can be pulled out, in which case it should be pinned;
- Humidity. As an avocado is a guest from the tropics, high humidity is vital for it. In case of low air humidity, the plant should be regularly irrigated with water from a spray bottle. In response to dry air, as well as to insufficient lighting, excessive or too rare watering, avocados can react by dropping or twisting the foliage;
- Watering. The soil should be kept wet, avoiding both excessive moisture and the slightest drying — to these factors the plant is quite sensitive;
- Fertilizer. Avocados gratefully respond to top dressing with liquid mineral fertilizers. You can use as usual for indoor plants, and specially selected for tropical plants;
- Crop. In order to help the plant to form a lush dense crown as needed, you should pinch the top and side shoots. If this is not done, the avocado will look «lanky», will have a long thin trunk and rare leaves.
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If your avocado has become unhealthy, you should carefully examine it for the presence of pests or diseases.
Phytophthora is a fungus that infects the root system of a plant and destroys it. When phytophthora penetrate into parts of the plant, ulcers form on its stem or leaves. Sick avocados should be immediately isolated from the rest, because the disease is contagious. Stop the disease is possible only with timely detection of the disease and removal of the infected area.
They are the result of low air humidity. The foliage of an avocado that has been attacked by these pests begins to turn yellow and crumble. If the plant does not provide timely assistance, it may die. In order to get rid of pests, first of all, it is necessary to provide the necessary moisture, the plant should be treated with a soap solution, it is better to remove the strongly affected parts. May need treatment with special insect repellents.
It is expressed in the formation of whitish plaque on a tree trunk, brown and greenish spots on the leaves of avocado. Sick plant fades, looks unhealthy. Processing the avocado with a fungicide solution will help the plant to defeat the mold.
In most cases, the Perseus lives and grows at home for many years, and is able to reach very impressive sizes. However, forcing a tree to bear fruit at home is very difficult.
For this avocado, it is necessary to provide conditions as close as possible to the natural ones: temperature, humidity, the amount of sunlight received by the plant — everything matters.
Cross-pollination is necessary for the fruit ovary, therefore several Persea trees should be kept in the house. Despite the fact that avocados are capable of self-pollination, in practice this happens extremely rarely.
Maybe your tree will be more accommodating and will please the long-awaited harvest?